Economy Characteristics

Doing Business uses a number of variables to characterize a country. Among them:

Gross national income (GNI) per capita

Doing Business 2019 reports 2017 income per capita as published in the World Bank’s World Development Indicators 2018Income
is calculated using the Atlas method (in current U.S. dollars). For cost indicators expressed as a percentage of income per capita,
2017 gross national income (GNI) per capita in current U.S. dollars is used as the denominator. GNI data based on the Atlas
method were not available for Eritrea; Puerto Rico (territory of the United States); San Marino; Somalia; South Sudan; the Syrian
Arab Republic; Taiwan, China; República Bolivariana de Venezuela; and the Republic of Yemen. In these cases, GDP or GNP per
capita data and growth rates from other sources, such as the International Monetary Fund’s World Economic Outlook database
and the Economist Intelligence Unit, were used.

Region and income group

Doing Business uses the World Bank regional and income group classifications. Regional averages presented in figures and tables in the Doing Business report include economies from all income groups (low, lower middle, upper middle and high income), though high-income OECD economies are assigned the “regional” classification OECD high income.


Doing Business 2019 reports midyear 2017 population statistics as published in World Development Indicators 2018.

Additional development data and statistics are available from the World Bank. For main Doing Business indicators by economy, click on the economy name.